(Essay presented before the International Conference on
"Marriage and Family" held in Seoul, South Korea, 25-31 August 1991)

Sri Taralabalu Jagadguru
Dr Shivamurthy Swamiji
Sri Taralabalu Jagadguru Brihanmath
SIRIGERE - 577 541
Karnataka/ INDIA

As a monk without any personal experience of a married life, I wonder whether I am qualified to say anything on marriage and family. But if you ask any married man or woman: "What is marriage?", I still wonder whether you get any satisfactory answer either. I will not be surprised if you get ten different answers from ten different people. Again, none of them will be a direct answer to your question but rather a common complaint or discord note of unhappiness obviously directed against their spouse and a deep dissatisfaction that they are fed up with their married life! Everybody would say that this was not the kind of marriage that he or she ever dreampt of. But nobody seems to be clear in his/her mind as to what that ideal marriage is after all! George Bernard Shaw who was once asked to contribute an essay to a book on marriage, gently declined saying: "No man dare write the truth about marriage while his wife lives. I will read the volume with interest, knowing that it will consist chiefly of evasions!" To a question what he thought about marriage, his reply was: "It is difficult to answer. I might say it is like freemasonry; those who are not received into the order cannot talk about it, and those who are members are pledged to eternal silence!" There is also a similar saying that marriage is a big mysterious fort; those who are outside it, want to get into it curiously and those who are inside it, want to get out of it desperately! Perhaps the best definition of marriage is to be found in the following words of Dr. Radhakrishnan, the great philosopher and thinker of India: "Marriage is not a mere convention, but an implicit condition of human society. Though its ideals have changed, it seems to be a permanent form of human association. It is an adjustment between the biological purposes of nature and the sociological purposes of man. Whether it is successful or not depends on the way it is worked."

Both the bride and the bridegroom during an Indian marriage ceremony are taught the ideal of faithfulness in their conjugal life and mutual understanding in the following hymns they recite: "Dharme ca arthe ca kame ca nati-charami". The priest who dictates this Sanskrit mantra to them hardly explains its meaning to them. They repeat these words mechanically as dictated by the priest without realizing their profound meaning. It is actually a solemn pledge taken by the new couple that they will not transgress the rules of Dharma (righteousness) in their pursuits of wealth (artha) and happiness (Kama, literally meaning desires). In other words, with this very meaningful pledge, taken before the elders and the relatives, the new couple are expected to share equally all the pleasures and pains of their life and lead a fruitful life of mutual trust and harmony in the firm bond of love.

A folklore in my mother-tongue Kannada, illustrates a very delicate situation of a married man, in just two short sentences:

"Happala madyala, hada haki
gandanu badidana, kada haki!"

A cake she prepared very deliciously,
But her husband slammed the door
and beat her mercilessly!

Anybody who listens to these verses certainly gets enraged at the wicked husband and feel like thrashing the fellow. But the story is quite different and very imaginative. It speaks of a loving husband who asked his wife to prepare a cake. The faithful wife readily agreed and prepared a delicious cake. The only mistake she did was that she did not bring it to the notice of her mother-in-law. That old lunatic became angry and mistook it as a deliberate act of challenge against her authority in the house. When the loving son returned home late in the evening, he felt very bad that his mother, upset by the incident, had not taken her food the whole day and indirectly expected him to punish his wife for her alleged misdeed! Poor fellow didn't know what to do and was perplexed. As a loving son, he could not displease his mother and as a loving husband, he could not punish his wife either, that too for no fault of hers. But finally, as a devout son, he pulled his wife in anger and dragged her to the bed room, slammed the door from behind and started beating heavily. The old lady hearing the shoutings, shrieks and the sounds of heavy blows from the room, felt very happy and proud of his son for his stern action against her disobedient wretched daughter-in-law. But the stupid lady did not know that her son was beating not his wife but the pillows on the bed, only to satisfy her (mother) ego!

A successful marriage is not just a biological compatibility but an emotional and psychological satisfaction. There are husbands who have deserted their beautiful wives. The extra-marital relationships need not necessarily be due to emotional dissatisfaction but they may also be caused by one's loose character or infatuation for the looks of other women. Though it is the physical beauty that mainly attracts men and women at the time of their marriage, ultimately it is the inner beauty of their heart that draws them close to each other and unites them in a life-long bond of love. If that kind of attraction of heart does not develop between the couple during the course of their married life, the marriage is going to be a failure or will hang on without any meaning in it.

One unique feature of a married woman of India is her attachment and deep sentiments towards her parents' house. The English words "parents' house" unlike the words tavaru- mane in Kannada or maike in Hindi, fail to convey the deep sentiments of a married lady towards her mother or the place where she was born. Such words cannot be translated in any language other than the Indian languages because of the cultural differences. The following passage selected from a Kannada folklore is not only a beautiful expression of such sentiments but also a beautiful piece of poetry:

"tottila hotkondu taur banna utkondu
appa kotteme hodkondu tangyamma
tit hatti tirugi nodyaala!"

Carrying the cradle of her young child
Beaming the radiance of cheerfulness on her face
Driving the she-buffalo presented by her father
She stepped down a slope
But was quickly up on her toe
With her head turning back
Only to catch a final glimpse!

The poem describes of an young married lady who had been to her parents' house during her pregnancy and was returning home after the safe delivery of her child. Her father gave her a she-buffalo obviously for feeding the milk to her child. As she stepped down a hillock on the way to her husband's house, the parents' house disappeared from the sight. And Lo! she could not proceed further without taking another glance at it! What a wonderful piece of poetry written by an unknown so- called illiterate poet! You need to be really an Indian woman to fully catch its imagination and pour into that coveting
"final glimpse" the profound feelings of joy, happiness and indebtedness and experience that inexplicable ecstasy!

An Indian mother with sweet children has no regrets for having chosen a married life in preference to an ascetic life. Look at the following folklore in Kannada:

"nannayyanantoru hanneradu makkalu
honneya marada nelalili
honneya marada nelalili aduvaga
samnyasi japava maredana!"

When my lovely kid
And twelve others of his kind
Started playing under the shade of a tree
The ascetic sitting beneath the tree for meditation
Looked on and on
And forgot to meditate!

What a wonderful poetry! What a wonderful heart of the mother! I need not explain how blessed or elevated a mother feels at heart by the presence of her loving child. A mother's heart needs no language, expects no greetings or presentations, knows no religion or caste or even species for that matter! Even the ferocious tigress has a tender heart for her cub! A childless Indian woman longs for a child and undergoes a great mental torture of being called a banje (barren woman). The old Indian literature is full of myths and legends about pious women who prayed God to bless them with a child no matter how short-lived the child was going to be and wished for the gratification of being called a mother!

When the people want to get their work done by hook or by crook, often I have heard them saying: "What does it matter whether you eat with your Mum or with your Dad, suffice it, if your belly gets filled! Though it sounds a convincing argument, I see one great flaw in it. There is a marked difference between eating with your Mum and eating with your Dad. Among the two, remember your childhood, it matters a lot to eat with your Mum than with your Dad. Because, the Mum looks at what you eat and what you need; what you like and what you don't. And you get the best and are able to eat to your heart's content. Whereas your Dad hardly looks at your plate. And if you wish for a dish you like very much, you will get a fine advice to eat what is available on the table! If you still persist, you will receive the firings to quit the table and get lost! Either you should quietly fill your belly with the unwanted stuff or go hungry. In either case, you do not derive the pleasure of eating! The sympathetic mother feels deeply hurt when you go hungry and serves you in secret for fear of your Dad!

The mother's heart is always forbearing, loving and tender but ready to take any burden on it for the sake of its child. The sacred motherhood is praised in so many words like: "Mother and the Motherland are greater than the Heaven!" (janani janma-bhumis ca svargad api gariyasi) "A wicked son may be born but never a wicked mother!" (kuputro jayeta kvacidapi kumata na bhavati) There is an interesting story about an youth who fell in love with a girl who demanded from him the heart of his mother if she were to be convinced that he really loved her (the girl). In his eagerness to please the girl friend, the fellow went home and killed the mother and took her heart in his hands. As he rushed back with it to his girl friend, he stumbled against a stone in the middle of his way and fell down. The mother's heart held in his hand, gently asked him: "My dear son! Did you get hurt?"

Such popular stories and the language and its usages help us understand the culture of a particular society. The English vocabulary to my mind appears to be very poor in expressing many filial feelings and family relations. Indian languages on the other hand have got a number of words not only for intimate relations but also for distant relations. For many such relationships, you cannot find parallel words in English at all. You may try to explain the relation by a combination of words that are available but it would sound more like a dictionary meaning than a word carrying distinct emotional family ties. English also cuts a very sorry figure when we analyze its words for referring to some of the most intimate relationships in a family. Except the words like father, mother, daughter and son, the words like father-in- law, mother-in-law and all such combination of 'laws' appear to be not emotionally deep-rooted. Whereas in the Indian languages, we have very distinct and special words to express such different relationships. The family bonds in India are rooted not in the law books but in the hearts of the family members! Leaving aside the words of various combinations that we also have, I have enlisted as many as thirty distinct words of different family relations (including both male and female) in my mother-tongue Kannada. It is not just the richness of its vocabulary, but the richness of the human relations conceived in the hearts of the people who speak that language.

Like the words uncle or aunty used by children with reference to any elderly man or woman not necessarily related to them, many words like Mava, Atte, Aliya and Sose (father- in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law and daughter-in-law) are used by people out of affection for anyone not directly related to them and sometimes also used to make fun of someone who is known very intimately. From this, you can figure out the deep emotional bonds existing in the hearts of a Hindu family. But in the modern Hindu society, it is very disheartening to note the use of English words for referring to their own family members by those who have received a formal education. I hope that I will not be labelled as a puritan or conservative in outlook when I say this. I do not mind the use of a word or a phrase 'imported' from a foreign language if there is no corresponding word in one's own language to effectively express its meaning. Sometimes, it is very hard to find words for scientific terms. But I do not see any reason why one should give up using the words of their own cultural value which their ancestors have used for generations out of deep love and affection. I definitely see an unhealthy attitude of treating these words as outmoded by the so-called educated elite and a tinge of modernity in their lifestyle losing their own cultural base. When an Indian child going to a nursery school calls the mother as Mummy, I cannot resist myself thinking of the Egyptian mummy! It is nothing short of an insult to her sacred motherhood for which she should take the child to task! I fail to understand what pleasure Indian mothers derive in allowing themselves to be called as mummies (corpses)! Without blindly imitating an alien culture and accepting the best of what the other culture can offer, I pray that our mothers continue to infuse and imprint in the mind and heart of their child their own rich cultural and spiritual heritage and feel delighted to see it grow into a responsible member of this Global family!

The institution of marriage is not the law of nature. It is the creation of the human mind lived through ages from the savage life to a civilized society. Man is a civilized animal. "ahara-nidra-bhaya-maithunam ca samanametat pashubhir naranam." Hunger, sleep, fear and sex are the natural impulses which are common to both animals and human beings. A tiger of today has not changed its food-habits or life-style from that of a tiger that lived two thousand years ago. Nor is it going to change in the years to come. But it is not so in the case of man. Imagine the food-habits and the life- style of the savage man of the stone age! Through the ages, man has learnt how to cook his food in fire, how to prepare different delicious dishes to his taste and what to eat or drink at what times. He no longer lives in caves but has built his own house, has an attractive modern kitchen with all electric gadgets and a beautiful dining table to sit around with his family and eat together enjoying a television serial. He has a master bed-room with a gorgeous couch and a thick mattress to sleep on comfortably and so on and so forth. Similarly, man has also given thought to his carnal desires and the need to establish his own family with a wife and children. After going through all the stages of polyandry, polygamy, exogamy, endogamy etc., he has at last found monogamy to be the best type of marriage that suits him for his happiness. Because, there is no end to the cravings of mind which if unchecked would lead to unhappiness. Marriage is thus a regulation of the biological needs of man in the interest of his own individual happiness and development. Marriage is sometimes interpreted as more a social charter for the establishment of a legitimate family than a license for fulfilling one's carnal desires. This interpretation may lead to misunderstand that the institution of marriage neglects the interest of an individual. But it is not so. The very origin and spirit of marriage is to check the uncontrolled animal indulgence that existed in the early days of human race (or which prevails even now in a permissive society) and to regulate it in the interest of man himself. The interest of his family and the society cannot be separated from or go against the interest of the individual, if he feels and acts as a responsible member of the family and the society. In a society where sex is an open commodity, the sanctity of human love and human relations goes to the dogs. Satisfaction of sensual desires is not love but lust and vulgarity. If there is anything in this world which can bring some meaning to this life and give sustenance to your heart to feel worth living, it is the pure human love. It does not demand anything in return. But if that love turns out to be deceitful, calculative, utilitarian and of mere convenience, you feel utterly disgusted and dead at heart! People seem to love your wealth, your position and the powers you hold, and not you as a person and purely as a human being.
People who longed for pure love and made sacrifices in the pursuits of it, have become immortal in the history of mankind. "The great romances of the world are those of faithful love. It is fidelity through suffering and pain that has moved and won the homage of the world". The best example that I can quote from the legends of India is the story of a pious lady called Savitri. She knew fully well that Satyavan whom she wanted to marry was not going to live longer and she would soon become a widow. Inspite of the repeated advice by her father to select some other person, she was not prepared to change her mind. Fully determined to marry him only, she told her father that he was the only person she ever loved in her life and that she did not want her heart get defiled by any other man! When the short-lived Satyavan died after the marriage and the God of Death came to take him away, it is said that she pleaded to him and with the power of her chastity, she succeeded in getting her dead husband back to life.

A pious woman of India longs for death much before her husband dies, as depicted in the following words of a Kannada folklore which touch the heart of the readers:

"angaiya olagina linga-muruti swami
mangalarathiya na belage
mangalarathiya na belagi beduve
marayara munde maranava!"

O my Lord receiving offerings in my hands
I adore Thee with this shining light (aarati)!
And with this, I pray to You
May You grant me death and death only
Before the eyes of my loving husband!

Even now, whenever a house wife dies, people praise her and exclaim that she had a 'blissful death' (the actual word for it is Muttaide Savu which is hard to translate in English). I do not know whether this kind of wish to die earlier to the husband is because that she cannot bear the agony of the death of her beloved husband or she cannot bear the ill-treatments and tortures of being a widow in the midst of the scornful eyes of the society. Perhaps, it is more a sentimental expression of her deep love for the husband than anything else. The religious upbringing of remaining faithful to one's husband finds the highest expression in another prayer. The pious Indian woman before she dies prays for the same man to be her husband in her next birth also. But I wonder how many Indian husbands deserve the fulfillment of such prayers of devoted women or even cherish a similar idea of having the same wife in their next birth! Poor wives should be thankful to God if their husbands behave decently with them in this very life!

The worst part of a woman's married life in India, both emotionally and socially, is her unlucky days of widowhood especially in her prime youth. A time when she needs more moral and psychological support from her relatives to sustain the shock of the unexpected death of her beloved husband and find meaning for the rest of her life, the society treats her in the most cruel way making her feel the tortures of hell in this very life! No wonder if she prefers to die either by committing Sati at the funeral pyre of her dead husband or by committing suicide! Look at her mental agony best expressed by a modern Kannada poet:

My husband is dead
My mother-in-law, a half-mad
My father-in-law, a senile
My sister-in-law, mean-minded
My brother-in-law, a puppet in her hands
My step-sister-in-law, one deserted by her husband
The family servant, a criminal burglar
I happen to be the disgraceful daughter-in-law
of such a house!
Being a widow in the prime age of my youth
With a charming beauty
Everybody looks at me with lustful eyes
Alas! where shall I take refuge to live peacefully?
Tell me, O my blessed Master Sri Shivakumara Prabhu!

Another very humiliating and disgusting part of a woman's married life is the ill-treatments and harassments meted out to her at the husband's house for not clearing off her 'dues' of dowry. I find the bride burning or dowry deaths more cruel than the burning of a widow! If a widow is burnt alive at the funeral pyre after her dear husband is dead and gone, the young bride is burnt alive in the kitchen fire ironically by her husband himself and the so-called "in-laws" for not fetching more money from her parents! It is very painful to see that no legislation has been effective in putting an end to this ghastly act. The only way to fight against this evil is a pious sacrifice on the part of young girls themselves to determine unitedly and resolutely not to marry in families which demand dowry.

In the Hindu society and its religious literature, fidelity or to be faithful in conjugal life, is very much stressed, unfortunately more on the side of women than on men's side. Pati-vratya (to be faithful to one's husband) is extolled as the highest virtue of a woman in India. A woman of immoral character is liable to be condemned more than a debauchee! Ironically, a woman of bad character is considered to bring a bad name to the family and will be very much resented by every one inside and outside the family; whereas the immoral husband just receives some admonitions or goes scot-free in the eyes of the public with a passing remark: "To err is human! or Who is perfect in this imperfect world!" Perhaps, this is because nature also has done some injustice to women with a burden of childbearing!

In the folklore and the religious literature of India, a lot of advice is given to an young married lady: how she should behave in the husband's house, how she should be obedient to the in-law's, how she should behave with her neighbours, how she should treat her husband and so on and so forth. Even the elders advise their married daughter to somehow bear with when she complains about the ill-treatments in the hands of her husband or the in-law's. She would be told not to indulge in any act that would bring defame to the family she was born. I hardly see any advice given to a man by elders or literature - barring one or two stray passing remarks, how he should behave with his wife and his surroundings. Even Sarvajna, the great poet-philosopher of Kannada belonging to medieval times made a grave mistake of indirectly endorsing male dominance:

"becchaneya maneyage
vecchakke honnage
icche ariva satiyage
svargakke kicchu hacchenda Sarvajna!"

If you have a comfortable house
And enough money to spend
And a wife who understands you well
Then I say: "Hell with the Heaven!"

Why cannot a man try to understand his wife, her weals and woes, instead of expecting her to understand him? Indian religious literature is full of praises for a housewife: "It is the wife who makes the home and not the wood or stone used for the house!" (na griham kashta-pashanair dayita yatra tad griham); "The house alone is not the home, the housewife makes the home!" (na griham griham ityahur, grihini griham ucyate); "The home without a wife is like a wilderness to me!" (griham ca grihini-hinam aranya-sadrisham mama). "Where the women are adored, there the gods are pleased!" (yatra naryas tu pujyante ramante tatra devatah) All such exalted praises for women that you profusely find in the Indian literature, which in reality does not give any freedom to her, appear to me like big promises given by the political parties in India in their election manifestos without caring to fulfil them, once they come to power! Look at the following rule laid down by the Manu-smriti:

"pita rakshati kaumare, bharta rakshati yauvane,
putras tu sthavire tasmat na stri svatantryam arhati!"

Father guards her when she is young!
The husband, when she is in her youth
And the son, when she is old!
A woman, therefore, deserves no freedom!
- Manu-smriti

The only literature where women can find some consolation is the ancient Upanishads and the writings of the Shiva-sharanas of 12th century AD, known as Vachana literature. According to the Upanishads, at the beginning of this Universe, the Cosmic Spirit (Brahman) felt very lonely and therefore, split itself into two as male and female like a split pea and started the creation for its own pleasure! Hence husband and wife are the complementary halves of the one whole and not two independent entities. "The image of Ardha-narisvara (half male and half female form of Shiva) is India's recognition of the mutual relationship of man and woman, the idea of the co-operative, interdependent, separately incomplete, but mutually complete masculine and feminine functions". The Shiva-sharanas called for husband and wife to jointly offer prayers to God and said that such joint prayers with harmonious relations between them will be more pleasing to God than their individual prayers of mutual discord or disharmony. To the question: "what is man and what is woman?", they said that basically man and woman do not differ from each other. A man is identified by his beard and moustaches and a woman is identified by her breasts and matted hair but the soul within the two is neither woman nor man! Therefore, women and men who joined this religious movement during 12th century AD in Karnataka, enjoyed equal rights in the pursuits of spiritual matters. They said that a woman is not an enticement as most people think her to be, but it is the inner desire latent in one's mind that causes the enticement.

The wife is not just a playing doll to enchant you and you pick up and throw at your whims and fancy! She is your companion to infuse in you courage to tread the long dreadful path of life. She relieves you from the boredom of travelling all alone and helps you at times of distress and makes you feel relaxed from the tiresome journey! Marriage makes you realize the responsibilities and commitments to life. When parents complain about their irresponsible and arrogant son, often people advise: "Get him married soon, he will be alright!" It is said elsewhere that man is a beast tamed by a woman both when he is a child and an adult.

Marriage is not an impediment to spirituality. Virashaivism does not consider asceticism as an absolute virtue, nor condemns married life as a grave sin. You are given a free choice to make a suitable selection according to your own taste and bent of mind. What is condemned in Virashaivism is not the legitimate conjugal life but an extra- marital relationship: "nimma mutti para-dhana para- satiyarigelesidare nimma charanakke dura!" (O God! those who claim that they believe in you, should not covet another man's wife or property, otherwise they are surely far from your feet!). In this great religious movement of Shiva- sharanas who flocked together from the length and breadth of India, there were both ascetics and married couple. And neither enjoyed any special status by the order of life they selected or by position or vocation. Both had a common goal to achieve and that was: Self-realization!

Marriage should not be looked at as a legitimate means of sexual gratification only. Nor a woman should be treated as a pleasurable object or a maidservant or a housekeeper. I hate to hear a widower say that he is planning to marry again because there is nobody at home to cook food for him or take care of the young children from his first wife. What a stupidity! It is nothing short of a slavery and a heinous crime against womanhood! Such marriages should be condemned vehemently. If what he says is true and needs sympathetic consideration, why cannot he ask for and employ a cook or a baby-sitter instead of torturing another young soul who gets trapped by his wealth and property not knowing what the real life is like!

With the marriage, you should learn how to kill your animal passions and try to understand and experience the true form of love. "Marriage is a device for the expression and development of love". The finest poetry in the world literature has emerged from the heart in love with either a woman or the Nature or the Divine. I need not give examples for romantic poets or Nature poets. I certainly would like to give an example from my own tradition for the kind of love with the Divine. Akkamahadevi who lived during 12th century AD, was a great woman saint of Virashaivism. Unlike Meera Bai of Rajasthan and Andal of Tamilnadu of later times, this great woman saint of Karnataka who lived centuries earlier to them, is not known to many people of India. She refused to marry even a king who fell in love with her and told him that she was already wedded to that immortal Divine Spirit whom she termed as Chenna-mallikarjuna, meaning as sweet as the jasmine flower. However, when her parents' life was threatened, she unwillingly agreed to marry that king but did not allow him to touch her body. When the lustful king made an attempt to catch her by her garments (sari), she felt so disgusted that she threw away all her cloths and admonished the king what beauty he found in this mortal body which is a falling cage of bones, a dirty vessel of excrements, a stinking pot of urine, pus and phlegm! Instead of falling in love with such a body of fading beauty, she advised him to fall in love with the eternal beauty of God! She left the palace and went quite nude on the streets singing and chanting the sweet name of her immortal husband, the Lord Chenna-mallikarjuna. Her writings are resplendent with the natural feelings of a forlorn heart of a woman in deep love with the Divine! She is an unique example for the fundamental teachings of Virashaivism that one should long for the union with the Divine Spirit like a wife longs for the union with her husband (Sharana-sati Linga- pati).

"Marriages are made in Heaven!" said Tennyson. But they often end up in hell, if we look into the family life of many people around us. That sweet honey without whom he cannot think of living in this world even for a moment, soon 'miraculously' turns out to be a deadly venom once they are married and start living together as husband and wife. There is a saying that one way a girl can stop a man from making love to her is to marry him! However, "marriage is not the grave of love but of savage love or sensuality." "A deaf husband and a blind wife are always a happy couple", says a Danish proverb. Perhaps the proverb is meant to say that a husband has to shut his ears to the outbursts of his wife and the wife has to close her eyes to all the misdeeds of her husband! But, if they start accusing, arguing and shouting at each other, the poor neighbours may, otherwise, have to shut their eyes and ears!

Why is it that the two individuals who share their innermost life and are supposed to be two bodies with one soul in them, start behaving like two enemies? Unfortunately, everybody looks for an ideal wife without thinking for a moment whether he is an ideal husband and vice verse. You may find an ideal couple but certainly not an ideal husband or an ideal wife. When we generally speak of an ideal couple, we tend to forget the amount of sacrifice and the adjustments the life-partners make towards each other at times of differences. It is, therefore, in the hands of the married couple to make their life an earthly paradise or an organized hell! "Happiness in marriage requires a generous self-abandonment, endless tolerance, gentleness and politeness of heart". A successful marriage depends on the harmonious coordination between the husband and wife in what they think, act and wish. They should see together like a pair of eyes, act together like a pair of hands and move together like a pair of legs in the direction of achieving the joy and happiness in this life and the life hereafter!


Foot Notes:- Radhakrishnan, Religion and Society, (London: George Allen and
Unwin Ltd, 1966), p. 147

1 ibid, p. 147
2 ibid, p. 150
3 ibid, p. 151
4 ibid, p. 160
5 ibid, p. 164
6 Basavanna's Vachana, 641
7 Radhakrishnan, p. 146-7
8 ibid, p. 159
9 ibid, p. 160